Expired Film: Developing Ancient Black and White Film

9

How do you develop a roll of black and white film which is 35 years old and has no information about ISO or film type? With a bit or research and a lot of luck!

Credits: simonh82

If you find, win or are given a roll of really old, expired black and white film what is the best way to develop it at home? This was the problem I was posed when my father in law said that he had found a roll of film than he thought had been shot at least 35 years old. He asked if I could develop it and I said I would give it ago.

This film had not been stored properly during the intervening years and had just been left at the back of a draw getting hot in summer and cold in winter. In the last few years he had tried to send it to several photo labs, who had all said they couldn’t develop this type of film anymore. The main problem, I think, was that it was 127 format film which was discontinued my Kodak many years ago. Luckily for me, my Paterson development tank and reels can take 127 film. The other problem was that it just said ‘Boot – Black and White Film’ on the backing paper. An added note visible after I loaded it on to the reel said “Process at Boot immediately for best results”, definitely not an option! There was no information about ISO or anything else which might have given away who the real manufacturer was of this store brand film, or how it might have been developed when new.

The next issue is what to do with film this old. Over the years, film is affected by heat and cosmic rays. This causes a ‘base fog’, an overall exposure of the film which seriously decreases contrast and leaves the shadows looking washed out and the overall image lacking contrast. To deal with this you can choose certain black and white developers which suppress the base fog. Luckily I had a bottle of Kodak HC-110 developer in the cupboard and this is one of the best developers for this purpose. After a bit of research I decide on developing this film in dilution B (1 part developer to 63 parts water) for 9 minutes at 20 degree C. I had had suggestions to use weaker dilutions and longer development times, but these tend to lead to lower contrast so I went for the higher concentration.

I started with a 3 minute presoak of the film in water at 20 degrees C, to soften the old dry emulsion. This should allow the developer to penetrate the emulsion at an even rate.

The next choice was how often to agitate during development. Again, advice I receive online varied. More frequent agitation led to increased contrast (good), but also increased grain (bad). In the end I went for 10 seconds of agitation every minute.

The resulting negative were entirely usable. They were definitely not the finest grain or most contrasty negatives I had ever developed, but they were perfectly usable and gave a great peak back in to the past.

Credits: simonh82

This method should work for any unknown film of a similar age, but results will vary depending on film type and storage conditions. If you’ve developed ancient film, please let me know how you got along and share any tips below.

written by simonh82 on 2012-04-06 #gear #tutorials #black-and-white #expired-film #tipster #development #ancient #found-film #127 #home-development #film-processing

Thanks, Danke, Gracias

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9 Comments

  1. wuxiong
    wuxiong ·

    great work, your careful research and prepairing work before actual processing the film is very important, and you definately got the best results...<:) congratulations and thanks for sharing...<:)

  2. sirio174
    sirio174 ·

    great article!

  3. exit14
    exit14 ·

    Nice job! I recently developed a roll from the early 70's. It was Kodacolor-X C-22 process. I wasn't going to find any C-22 developer so I went with B&W. I developed it in what I had, which was Sprint chemicals and left it in the developer for 15 minutes, agitating for 5 seconds every minute. I didn't get your amazing results but I did get results. It's always a thrill when something comes out of those old films! Here's a link to mine. Great article and advice!
    www.flickr.com/photos/suebh/sets/72157629324487102/

  4. simonh82
    simonh82 ·

    @exit14 Your results from the kodacolor-X look great. They are very grainy, but what do you expect from film that old. It's really nice finding these little snapshots of life so long ago and giving them some life they may never have had otherwise.

  5. exit14
    exit14 ·

    I agree, every one is like a little mystery waiting to be solved, if you can...

  6. werewolf
    werewolf ·

    Over my years, I find that the best way to process expired film is to use a developer that has a very low sodium sulfite content or none at all. In my case, I use Kodak DK-50 1:1 and shoot the film at the film's ASA/ISO rating with fantastic results and finer grain than D-76! Whenever I can get my hands on some DK-50, I always try to stock up on it as Kodak just discontinued making it 2 years ago. Also, the 1:1 Dilution of DK-50 is reusable and will process 10 rolls of film per quart. It also removes that Antihalation backing dye on films like T-max. Just follow the processing times used for Kodak Xtol FS and you can't go wrong! ALSO, DK-50 is a Continuous Tone Developer and has better shadow detail, normal contrast and excellent sharpness. This is a way better developer to use than D-76 and the salt content is extremely low, and it gets even lower once you use DK-50 at the 1:1 dilution.

  7. dktucson
    dktucson ·

    Actually sodium sulfite helps fight base fog. The DK50 formula is as follows and has quite a bit of sodium sulfite:
    Metric
    2.5 gm. . 'Eion '. (Metol)
    60.0 gm.. Sodium sulphite (cryst.) or 30.0 gm .(anhydrous)
    2.5 .gm.Hydroquinone
    10.0 gm . 'Kodalk'
    0.5 gm . Potass ium bromide
    1000 c.c. Water to make a liter
    Dissolve the chemicals in the order given.
    You can make your own Kodalk --for evey 100 grams of kodalk you use 69 grams of Borax and 14.5 grams of Sodium hydroxide. So 10 grams of Kodalk would be 6.9 grams Borax and 1.45 grams sodium hydroxide.
    Another good developer for old stock is D23 at a 1:3 dilution as a 1 shot & toss developer--Very simple 2 ingredient formula
    250ml water for single Nikor tank
    .65gr Metol
    8.2 grams sodium sulfite
    Optionally add a few drops of 1% benzotrialzole depending on the age of the film & condition

  8. werewolf
    werewolf ·

    When you dilute the DK-50 1:1, the sodium content is cut in half to 30 grams of crystal sodium sulfite, or 15 grams of anhydrous sodium sulfite per liter. The cans that make 1 gallon of DK-50 stock is only 5 ounces, whereas other developers that make 1 gallon weight 1 pound or greater. Sodium hydroxide is lye, which causes heat and will cause excessive graininess and fog and is a very bad idea, which is a reason to never use Rodinal.

    Two developers that are sodium free are the HC-110 by Kodak and the Ilford Ilfotec HC, which are glycol based film developers with Balanced Alkalai and Hydroquinone.

    The D-23 has a 100 gram per liter sodium sulfite content, which is extremely high and is not advisable to use on grossly outdated films. DK-50 1:1, HC-110 Dilutions B (1:31) or F (1:79) are the best options for grossly expired black and white films.

    Benzotriazole causes a loss in film speed if you're not careful with it! You want to try to maintain as much of the image as possible without losing those critical details, which will get bleached out using Benzotriazole or Kodak Anti-Fog No 3.

  9. werewolf
    werewolf ·

    When you dilute the DK-50 1:1, the sodium content is cut in half to 30 grams of crystal sodium sulfite, or 15 grams of anhydrous sodium sulfite per liter. The cans that make 1 gallon of DK-50 stock is only 5 ounces, whereas other developers that make 1 gallon weight 1 pound or greater. Sodium hydroxide is lye, which causes heat and will cause excessive graininess and fog and is a very bad idea, which is a reason to never use Rodinal.

    Two developers that are sodium free are the HC-110 by Kodak and the Ilford Ilfotec HC, which are glycol based film developers with Balanced Alkalai and Hydroquinone.

    The D-23 has a 100 gram per liter sodium sulfite content, which is extremely high and is not advisable to use on grossly outdated films. DK-50 1:1, HC-110 Dilutions B (1:31) or F (1:79) are the best options for grossly expired black and white films.

    Benzotriazole causes a loss in film speed if you're not careful with it! You want to try to maintain as much of the image as possible without losing those critical details, which will get bleached out using Benzotriazole or Kodak Anti-Fog No 3.

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