Yogyakarta (also Jogja, Yogya, Jogjakarta) is a city in the Yogyakarta Special Region, Indonesia. It is renowned as a center of classical Javanese fine art and culture such as batik, ballet, drama, music, poetry, and puppet shows. It is also famous as a center for Indonesian higher education. Yogyakarta was the Indonesian capital during the Indonesian National Revolution from 1945 to 1949.
Yogyakarta is known as the second most important tourist destination in Indonesia besides Bali. Most tourists come to Yogyakarta for its strong Javanese culture and tradition, makes it prominent among other Javanese cities. Along with Surakarta or Solo, a city lies about 64 km to the east, Yogyakarta becomes the center of Javanese culture.
The area of the city of Yogyakarta is 32.5 km². While the city sprawls in all directions from the kraton, the core of the modern city is to the north, centering around the site of a few buildings with distinctive Dutch colonial-era architecture and the contemporary commercial district. Jalan Malioboro, with rows of sidewalk vendors and nearby market and malls, is the primary shopping street for tourists in the city, while Jalan Solo, further north, is a shopping district more frequented by locals. At the southern end of Malioboro, on the east side is the large local market of Beringharjo, not far from Fort Vredeburg a restored Dutch fort.
At Yogyakarta’s center is the kraton, or Sultan’s palace. Surrounding the kraton is a densely populated residential neighborhood that occupies land that was formerly the Sultan’s sole domain. Evidence of this former use remains in the form of old walls and the ruined “Water Castle” (Tamansari), built in 1758 as a pleasure garden. No longer used by the sultan, the garden had been largely abandoned. For a time, it was used for housing by palace employees and descendants. Reconstruction efforts began in 2004, and an effort to renew the neighborhood around the kraton has begun. The site is a developing tourist attraction.