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    Kris Davis, Ingrid Laubrock and Nicole Mitchell make statements with their new albums.<br> More than a quarter of <b>children</b> under the age of 5 are permanently “stunted” from malnutrition, the United Nations <b>Children’s</b> Fund said in a report released Monday.    Champagne and holidays among prizes on offer as fundraising <b>becomes</b> ever more important for parent teacher associationsThe traditional school fair was often a summer ordeal to endure, rather than enjoy. A few hours despairing of <b>the</b> <b>futility</b> of life while trying to hook a duck, with only a dusty bottle of Blue <b>Nun</b> to show for it.But as parent <b>teacher</b> associations (PTAs) become more ambitious and fundraising becomes ever more important, schools across the country have transformed their summer events, <b>ditching</b> Lambrini for champagne, <b>and</b> dog-eared board games for holidays."It's<br> completely changed.<br> I remember it used to be a <b>couple</b> of <b>stalls</b> and some warm soft drinks, but now there is much more hype," <b>said</b> Chris McNamara,<br><img src=""><br> <b>head</b> of the PTA at Oakdene community primary in <b>Rainhill,</b> Merseyside.<br><br><img src=""><br> "It is <b>a</b> lot of blood, sweat and tears, and there is definitely a competitive edge to it.<br> In our area there are three schools, and <b>each</b> <b>one</b> wanted to be the best <b>and</b> offer the <b>best</b> prizes <b>in</b> the raffle."Such prizes in some affluent areas range from weekends away in parents' holiday homes to Apple gadgets untouched in their boxes. "We really upped our game in the last couple of years, with a raffle with real gifts to be won to get people to put their hands in their pockets," said Angela McCormack, an advertising manager who helped organise her Carribean-themed school fair in Harrow-on-the-Hill, London.PTAs are using Facebook and Twitter to <b>draw</b> in a wider net of parents and use their skills and contacts, <b>said</b> Siobhan Freegard, founder of the parenting site Netmums.<br> <b>"We</b> see a lot of mums with professional backgrounds are finding their schools are less interested in them manning the <b>cake</b> stand and more in what business contacts they can bring to the<br><img src=""><br> table. But I also think a lot of parents have<br><img src=""><br> seen the second-hand tat on offer, have thought they <b>could</b> do much better and have rolled <b>their</b> sleeves up and got stuck in."Olivia<br> Brown, a self-employed interior and events designer, created a summer fair around an Alice in Wonderland theme at <b>Whittington</b> primary <b>in</b> Staffordshire and used Facebook <b>to</b> source prizes.<br> "We definitely upped the ante this year, and at the end had 250 to 300 people who<br><img src=""><br> went home with light <b>hearts</b> and lighter pockets."Companies, <b>such</b> as local estate agents, are increasingly being encouraged to sponsor the fairs, <b>provide</b> funds or <b>donate</b> prizes in return for a mention in the programme or a banner on<br><img src=""><br> a school field.<br> Barclays is one of several firms which matches the funding raised by their employees, while others sponsor schools as part of their corporate social responsibility schemes."PTAs have really <b>upped</b> their game in the past five years <b>or</b> <b>so,</b> and some of them <b>are</b> now incredibly successful and running as small social enterprises," said Annette Wiles, <b>of</b> PTA UK, a <b>charitable</b> body that supports PTAs.<br> "We're seeing more creativity and people moving beyond <a href = "">vitiligo treatment </a> and linking up with business, seeking out sponsorship. It's a mutually beneficial relationship."Wiles<br> added that, although the upmarket shift was marked in some <b>schools,</b> it was the fete staples that still often brought in <b>the</b> crowds. "Putting headteachers in the stocks and throwing sponges at them is <b>still</b> unsurprisingly popular," she said.It is not just about <b>pushy</b> parents, though, according to Lisa Stone, still recovering after helping raise £10,000 at her children's <b>primary</b> in Putney. With extra funding for schools drying up and difficult economic times, schools need extra funds more than ever. "It's so important, for state schools in particular, to get that extra funding," she said.<br> "Parents know the schools can't afford the things they want their children to have, they <b>know</b> what the funds are for and they see <b>the</b> benefits immediately."Some have taken fundraising to the next level. At <b>Cathy</b> Ranson's son's sixth-form college in Buckinghamshire, students visited parents asking them to pledge money over a period of years to fund a new building. Within a few months, Chesham grammar school had raised the required <b>£500,000.</b> "If you are lucky enough to have <b>parents</b> at the <b>school</b> it makes a big difference," she <b>said.</b> "I <b>think</b> <b>PTAs</b> are getting better at targeting <b>valuable</b> parents, looking<br><img src=""><br> at what skills they have and what they can offer."Which<br> works well in leafy Buckinghamshire, or affluent north <b>London</b> suburbs. <b>But</b> in schools where parents are struggling to make ends meet, it is much more of<br><img src=""><br> a challenge, said writer and mother Natasha Edwards.<br><br><img src=""><br> She has found it <b>difficult</b> <b>to</b> attract much-needed funds for her son's school fair in Harlesden, north-west London."There<br> are two sides to this story," she said. "If your school is in the middle of a housing estate and nearly 40% of the kids are on free school meals, businesses are just less keen to get involved."<br> A neighbouring school, with more affluent parents, had an iPad in the raffle; another was offering a week's holiday in a house in Spain that belonged to one of the parents.<br> "Our school has a different intake and some of the parents <b>lack</b> the language skills and confidence to get involved," said Edwards.She convinced a local <b>estate</b> agent to fund the bouncy castle, and was heartened when Tesco <b>and</b> Homebase <b>offered</b> help. The Argos, Superdrug and Poundstretcher stores on the parade of shops close to the<br><img src=""><br> school were less willing to help, she said. "It can be frustrating. But the great thing is, like any school fair, you see parents from all different backgrounds contributing what they can to make <b>their</b> <b>child's</b> school better."School fundingSchoolsPrimary <b>schoolsSecondary</b> schoolsAlexandra © 2013 Guardian News and Media <b>Limited</b> <b>or</b> its affiliated companies.<br> All rights reserved. | Use of this content<br><img src=""><br> is subject to our Terms & Conditions | More Feeds     George Osborne, the chancellor of the <b>Exchequer,</b> outlined a continuing policy of austerity for Britain with welfare and public-spending restraint <b>the</b> key to his party’s policies. During the Celtic Tiger boom, snakes became a popular pet among the Irish nouveau riche.<br> <b>But</b> after the bubble burst, <b>many</b> owners <b>abandoned</b> the pets they could no longer afford. With wines <a href = "">aquaponics 4 you pdf </a> <b>in</b> <b>stores,</b> plan a Seder with one sparkling, one white, one red and one fortified without straying from the kosher path. Several MIT undergraduate and graduate students <b>and</b> alumni — Noam <b>Angrist,</b> Marvin Arnold, Dorothy Brown, Hyunjii (Justina) Cho, Deborah Hanus and Marisa Lau — have been <b>awarded</b> Fulbright study/research grants <b>for</b> the upcoming academic year. The Fulbright Program is the flagship international educational exchange program sponsored by the United States government and is designed to increase mutual understanding between the peoples of the U.S. and other countries. Recipients of Fulbright grants are selected on the basis of academic or professional achievement, as well as demonstrated leadership potential in their fields. The grant allows students to undertake projects or academic programs in 155 countries around the world.The MIT students awarded Fulbright study/research grants for this <b>year</b> have proposed a range of projects or courses of study.<br> Angrist, from Brookline, Mass.,<br> will be graduating this spring from MIT with a bachelor’s degree in mathematics and<br><img src=""><br> economics. He will travel to Botswana to work on educational reform, conducting <b>research</b> on how the structure of the school term affects educational outcomes and determining alternative models.<br> This project builds on previous <b>work</b> Noam has done<br><img src=""><br> <b>with</b> the World Bank Education Sector. Arnold, from Silver Spring, Md.,<br> graduated with a bachelor’s degree in electrical <b>engineering</b> and computer science from MIT in 2010. The Fulbright grant will allow Arnold to complete an MBA at the IE Business School in Madrid, Spain.<br> Marvin plans to be involved with IE’s Venture Labs, <b>where</b> he can work closely with Spanish businesses and develop cross-cultural <b>collaborations.Brown</b> '10, SM '10 — a first-generation American from New York City — graduated from MIT with a master’s degree in civil and environmental engineering. Her project will take her to Brazil, where she will study the use of rice husk ash in concrete as a low-cost and environmentally friendly construction material. This project builds on research Brown conducted for her master’s thesis. Cho, from Orland<br><img src=""><br> Park, Ill., will graduate <b>this</b> spring <b>with</b> <b>a</b> bachelor’s <b>degree</b> in biology.<br> She will travel to Berlin, Germany <b>to</b> conduct <b>microbiology</b> and immunology research in Professor Arturo Zychlinsky's laboratory at the Max Planck Institute for Infection Biology.<br> She will be studying how white blood cells respond to infection by investigating the mechanism of neutrophil extracellular trap (NET) formation. Her interest in blood cells stems from work she has done in Professor Harvey Lodish's lab at MIT.Hanus,<br> a resident of Cambridge, <b>Mass.,</b> graduated this year with a bachelor’s degree in electrical engineering and computer<br><img src=""><br> science. With the <b>Fulbright</b> grant, Hanus plans to travel to Cambodia to research education and <b>employment,</b> focusing on the social factors that contribute to underemployment.<br> She is particularly interested in the potential of experiential learning and plans to build on work she had already done in Cambodia in 2011 with the Harpswell Foundation and Small World.Lau, from Plainfield, N.J., acquired a master’s degree in city planning from MIT in 2012, following a master’s in cultural heritage management from Koc University in <b>Turkey,</b> in 2010, and a bachelor’s degree in political science <b>and</b> art history from Williams College in 2006.<br> She will <a href = "">cure tinnitus </a> heritage conservation plan for the water system of Nicosia,<br><img src=""><br> Cyprus.<br> This work <b>will</b> involve mapping <b>the</b> city’s historic water system and creating recommendations <b>for</b> conservation.<br> The Times's Simon Romero explains how Cardinal Jorge Mario Bergoglio navigated the politics of gay marriage. Josh Jarboe’s tumultuous football career has landed him a tryout at Redskins mini-camp this week.     A lack of suitable crash test dummies has left many car seats unregulated - and <b>untested.</b> Give me an S-C-I-E-N-C-E! <b>is</b> a blog about professional cheerleaders who are pursuing careers in science, technology, engineering and math.<br> The founder of the blog is Darlene Cavalier, a former Philadelphia 76ers cheerleader who worked at Discover magazine for 10 <b>years</b> and a...<br> The Art Deco-inspired collection took two-and-a-half years to develop and includes furniture, lighting, bedding, tabletop items <b>and</b> even a backgammon set. Seasons do not get more trying than the kind that Grambling State’s 0-27 men’s basketball team is enduring. Academic problems helped create the mess.<br> Children born outside the United States were <b>48</b> percent less likely to suffer from allergic diseases like asthma, eczema, hay fever and food allergies than those born in America, <b>a</b> study found.     After completing a deal to lure Coach Doc Rivers from the Boston Celtics, the Los Angeles<br><img src=""><br> <b>Clippers</b> were clear about their championship aspirations.     The Apple TV set-top box can now work with wireless Bluetooth keyboards, but you do not have to use an Apple-branded model.<br> SANFORD, Fla. — Rachel Jeantel was the girl on<br><img src=""><br> the other end of the line. She is the one who says she was talking <b>to</b> Trayvon Martin on the phone moments before the 17-year-old was shot to death. And that makes her a star — a key prosecution <b>witness</b> — in the sinuous court drama unwinding in this <b>central</b> Florida city near Orlando.<br> <b>Read</b> <b>full</b> article >>     Pachyderms' metabolism offers clues <b>to</b> dinosaur behavior Wayne <b>Rooney</b> told Alex Ferguson he wanted a transfer before Ferguson’s retirement in May, but Manchester United’s new manager, David Moyes, said Rooney was not going anywhere.     This week Camila Ruz meets Dr Helena Cronin, co-director of the Centre for Philosophy of Natural and Social Science at the London School of Economics, to discuss "sexuality after genetics" – the topic of <b>a</b> debate she will<br><img src=""><br> participate<br><img src=""><br> in<br><img src=""><br> as part of <b>this</b> year's How The Lights Get In Festival in Hay-On-Wye.<br> Why are males and females so different? Why would one identical twin be gay while the <b>other</b> is straight? Dr Cronin, who specialises <b>in</b> the genetics of gender and sexuality, also explains why she thinks there are "more Nobels and more dumbbells" among men than <b>among</b> women (it<br><img src=""><br> has little to <b>do</b> with our early environment, she says).Could eating creepy-crawlies save the planet? Camila interviews one of the participants of the Wellcome Trust's "Who's The Pest?" season, Prof Marcel Dicke, a leading entomologist and connoisseur of insect protein. We also take a look at some of last week's big science news stories with two of <b>the</b> fabulous science-comedy trio Festival of the Spoken Nerd: Helen Arney and Steve Mould.<br> They join Camila to discuss the debate over the "aquatic ape" theory <b>of</b> <a href = "">trademiner </a> EU pesticide bans and the battle to save the bee and the <b>key</b> <b>to</b> extending the lifespan<br><img src=""><br> of <b>mice,</b> and possibly humans.Subscribe for free via iTunes to ensure every episode gets delivered.<br> (Here is the non-iTunes URL feed).Follow the podcast on our Science Weekly Twitter feed and receive updates <b>on</b> all breaking science news stories from<br><img src=""><br> Guardian Science.Email<br><br> <b>Science</b> is now on Facebook. You can also join our Science Weekly Facebook group.We're<br> always here when <b>you</b> need us. Listen back through our archive.Camila RuzJason Phipps     Kate Simpson is a full-time English professor at the Middletown, Va.,<br> campus of Lord Fairfax Community College.<br> She saw my column about Prince George's County history teacher Doris Burton lamenting the decline of<br><img src=""><br> research skills in high school, as changing state and local course requirements and ...<br> Without reliable internet access, development professionals in the south have no voice. The danger is then that you<br><img src=""><br> rely on others to<br><img src=""><br> <b>speak</b> for you – and <b>hope</b> they get it rightI learned an interesting lesson this week: without internet you do not exist.<br> The Guardian Development Professionals Network recently held a live online debate on antimalarial <b>resistance</b> . On the panel were many key <b>figures</b> <b>and</b> <b>experts</b> on malaria.<br> I was so excited.As a frontline paediatrician treating children with malaria every day I had many questions to ask experts about recognising resistance in a low resource setting, the value of all the<br><img src=""><br> molecular and <b>genetic</b> research currently being done, what quality control measures could we take in our laboratories … and many others.I also had my own comments about practices I was seeing here in Cameroon that were contributing to the problem of resistance and <b>wanted</b> to hear other people's experiences.I<br> ran home from a busy ward round to log on and participate only to find that my internet wouldn't start! I raced to a nearby café and managed <b>to</b> log on. I was only a few minutes late and already a great debate was taking place, challenging questions were being raised, research was being explained, <b>it</b> was going to be an exciting two hours. I put in my <b>comment</b> about pharmacy prescribing.<br> <b>Someone</b> asked for examples and I was ready with a <b>link</b> to an important Nigerian study and then … nothing. The page wouldn't load.I<br> refreshed and refreshed.<br> Low voltage, I was told, slows the internet.<br> <b>I</b> tried a nearby NGO's office and got there just in time for a cut.Hours<br> later the power returned and I was able to read the debate. It was good but was dominated by academics and research bodies. <b>Nobody</b> addressed my frontline, practical questions.<br><img src=""><br> I felt disappointed and sad, but worst of all <b>I</b> <b>felt</b> invisible.Without a good internet connection you have no voice.<br> You <b>cannot</b> participate in online debates. You miss out on opportunities on online learning and recruitment.<br> You cannot network easily with people in<br><img src=""><br> your field, share ideas, learn from each other's challenges and <b>even</b> update yourself on advances in your <b>field.</b> Worst <b>of</b> <b>all</b> you cannot tell the world your story.The danger of poor internet access is that we have<br><img src=""><br> to rely on others <b>to</b> tell our stories <a href = "">forex growth bot </a> A fellow volunteer wrote <b>a</b> blog about her time in Cameroon that was followed by her friends and family back home in Canada. Though her<br><img src=""><br> anecdotes were true, her perspective was skewed by her being a foreigner. She did not know the background or cultural context of the many behaviours <b>she</b> commented <b>on</b> and sometimes even ridiculed.<br> Most of my Cameroonian friends who saw her blog found it inaccurate and offensive.<br> But with internet usage <b>charged</b> by the minute and some pages taking <b>a</b> frustrating <b>3-5</b> <b>minutes</b> to load, it was difficult to convince them to tell their own story.In not telling our stories, we <b>cannot</b> <b>participate</b> in shaping our future. In medicine, in particular, we cannot draw <b>attention</b> to the everyday clinical problems we are facing.<br> We cannot make them a<br><img src=""><br> research priority, because nobody knows about them. Therefore <b>well</b> meaning researchers in universities in the global north determine what studies to fund and what to publish and though these are not always relevant to us in the south in the way they envisage; we cannot give feedback.<br> So they continue developing research that is removed<br><img src=""><br> from realities <b>on</b> the ground.I<br> don't want to paint the whole of Africa as an internet blackhole. Technology groups and telecom companies are trying to improve internet access across the continent. Ushahidi developed a BRCK: a portable internet storage device that works without <b>electricity</b> in several African countries. In countries where governments have<br><img src=""><br> made improving internet access and reliable electricity key priority, the benefits are apparent.<br> Rwanda <b>is</b> now rated as the third easiest <b>country</b> to do business in sub-Saharan Africa and reports improved health services in the area of HIV because of web-based initiatives, <b>after</b> improving access to internet and electricity across the country.<br> Even Obama recognised that development cannot progress <b>without</b> better electricity.I used to see developments in technology, particularly in improving internet access as a luxury for <b>the</b> developed world. I believed the governments in <b>low</b> income countries had bigger battles to fight – giants like HIV, infant mortality and food insecurity.<br> While those issues can't, mustn't, be ignored, connectivity <b>should</b> also be made a priority. If <b>for</b> no other reason than to create our own digital footprint; to take <b>ownership</b> of the narrative and tell the <b>rest</b> of the world what we are doing to fight our battles.Dr Tamara Bugembe is a general paediatric registrar.<br> She is currently volunteering in <b>Cameroon</b> on a VSO/RCPCH fellowship. Her blog collates and organises current <b>paediatric</b> research involving or relating to<br><img src=""><br> African children. Follow @tbugembe on Twitter.This<br> content is brought to you by Guardian Professional.<br> To get more <b>articles</b> like this direct to your inbox, sign up <b>free</b> to become a member of the Global Development Professionals NetworkProfessional<br> © 2013 <b>Guardian</b> News and Media Limited or its affiliated companies. All rights reserved.<br> | Use of this content is subject to our Terms & Conditions | More Feeds     For years, a battle between the need to fill the holes in the family narrative during World War II and <b>a</b> duty to keep silent.    <br> At W. H.<br> Christian & Sons, uniforms <b>worn</b> by New York’s building workers are cleaned and